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`ModelArray.gam` fits gam model for each of elements requested, and returns a tibble data.frame of requested model statistics.

Usage

ModelArray.gam(
  formula,
  data,
  phenotypes,
  scalar,
  element.subset = NULL,
  full.outputs = FALSE,
  var.smoothTerms = c("statistic", "p.value"),
  var.parametricTerms = c("estimate", "statistic", "p.value"),
  var.model = c("dev.expl"),
  changed.rsq.term.index = NULL,
  correct.p.value.smoothTerms = c("fdr"),
  correct.p.value.parametricTerms = c("fdr"),
  num.subj.lthr.abs = 10,
  num.subj.lthr.rel = 0.2,
  verbose = TRUE,
  pbar = TRUE,
  n_cores = 1,
  ...
)

Arguments

formula

Formula (passed to `mgcv::gam()`)

data

ModelArray class

phenotypes

A data.frame of the cohort with columns of independent variables and covariates to be added to the model. It should contains a column called "source_file", and this column should match to that in data.

scalar

A character. The name of the element-wise scalar to be analysed

element.subset

A list of positive integers (min = 1, max = number of elements). The subset of elements you want to run. Default is `NULL`, i.e. requesting all elements in `data`.

full.outputs

TRUE or FALSE, Whether to return full set of outputs. If FALSE, it will only return those requested in arguments var.* and correct.p.value.*; if TRUE, arguments var.* will be ignored, and will return all possible statistics for var.* and any options requested in arguments correct.p.value.*.

var.smoothTerms

A list of characters. The list of variables to save for smooth terms (got from `broom::tidy(parametric = FALSE)`). Example smooth term: age in formula "outcome ~ s(age)". See "Details" section for more.

var.parametricTerms

A list of characters. The list of variables to save for parametric terms (got from `broom::tidy(parametric = TRUE)`). Example parametric term: sex in formula "outcome ~ s(age) + sex". See "Details" section for more.

var.model

A list of characters. The list of variables to save for the model (got from `broom::glance()` and `summary()`). See "Details" section for more.

changed.rsq.term.index

A list of (one or several) positive integers. Each element in the list means the i-th term of the formula's right hand side as the term of interest for changed R-squared between with and without it. Both delta adjusted R-squared and partial R-squared will be calculated for each of term requested. Usually term of interest is smooth term, or interaction term in models with interactions.

correct.p.value.smoothTerms

A list of characters. To perform and add a column for p.value correction for each smooth term. Default: "fdr". See "Details" section for more.

correct.p.value.parametricTerms

A list of characters. To perform and add a column for p.value correction for each parametric term. Default: "fdr". See "Details" section for more.

num.subj.lthr.abs

An integer, lower threshold of absolute number of subjects. For an element, if number of subjects who have finite values (defined by `is.finite()`, i.e. not NaN or NA or Inf) in h5 file > num.subj.lthr.abs, then this element will be run normally; otherwise, this element will be skipped and statistical outputs will be set as NaN. Default is 10.

num.subj.lthr.rel

A value between 0-1, lower threshold of relative number of subjects. Similar to num.subj.lthr.abs, if proportion of subjects who have valid value > num.subj.lthr.rel, then this element will be run normally; otherwise, this element will be skipped and statistical outputs will be set as NaN. Default is 0.2.

verbose

TRUE or FALSE, to print verbose messages or not

pbar

TRUE or FALSE, to print progress bar or not

n_cores

Positive integer, The number of CPU cores to run with

...

Additional arguments for `mgcv::gam()`

Value

Tibble with the summarized model statistics for all elements requested

Details

You may request returning specific statistical variables by setting var.*, or you can get all by setting full.outputs=TRUE. Note that statistics covered by full.outputs or var.* are the ones from broom::tidy(), broom::glance(), and summary() only, and do not include delta adjusted R-squared or partial R-squared or corrected p-values. However FDR-corrected p-values ("fdr") are generated by default. List of acceptable statistic names for each of var.*:

  • var.smoothTerms: c("edf","ref.df","statistic","p.value"); For interpretation please see tidy.gam with `parametric=FALSE`.

  • var.parametricTerms: c("estimate", "std.error","statistic","p.value"); For interpretation please see tidy.gam with `parametric=TRUE`.

  • var.model: c("adj.r.squared","dev.expl", "sp.criterion", "scale", "df", "logLik","AIC", "BIC", "deviance", "df.residual", "nobs"); "adj.r.squared" is r.sq from summary.gam; "sp.criterion" is sp.criterion from summary.gam; For interpretation please see glance.gam and summary.gam.

Regarding formula: So far these kinds of formula are tested:

  • formula with smooth term, but without any interactions. Examples like y ~ s(x) + orderedFactor; y ~ s(x) + s(z)

  • formula with interaction, but limited to only one interaction term, and in the formats of:

    • Formula #1: y ~ orderedFactor + s(x) + s(x, by=orderedFactor) + other_covariate, where orderedFactor should be discrete variables and generated by `ordered`. The interaction term will be displayed as "s_x_BYorderedFactor" in the column name in returned data.frame. You may use function `generator_gamFormula_factorXsmooth()` to generate one.

    • Formula #2: y ~ ti(x) + ti(z) + ti(x,z) + other_covariate, where x and z should be continuous variables. The interaction term will be displayed as "ti_x_z" in the column name in the returned data.frame. You may use function `generator_gamFormula_continuousInteraction()` to generate one.

You may be interested in how important a term is in a model. We provide two ways of quantification (see below). Both of them require running the reduced model without this term of interest, thus it will take longer time to run. You can make such request via argument changed.rsq.term.index, and you'll get both quantifications.

  • Delta adjusted R-squared (delta.adj.rsq) is defined as the difference between adjusted R-squared of full model (full formula in formula) and that of reduced model (formula without the term of interest). Notice that adjusted R-squared includes the penalty from the model complexity.

  • Partial R-squared (partial.rsq) is defined as: (sse.reduced.model - sse.full.model) / sse.reduced.model, where sse is the error sum of squares (or, residual sum of squares). It quantifies the amount of variance in the response variable that cannot be explained by the reduced model (model without term of interest), but can be explained by the term of interest in the full model.

Other notes on changed.rsq.term.index:

  • When requesting changed.rsq.term.index, fx should be set as TRUE, so that degree of freedom is fixed.

  • For formula with interactions, only formula in above formats are tested, and only the values of interaction term are valid. The delta.adj.rsq and partial.rsq for main effect (such as s(x) in Formula #1) may not "functionally" be these metrics, as their definitions should be changed to reduced formula without both main effect and interaction term.

For p-value corrections (arguments correct.p.value.*), supported methods include all methods in `p.adjust.methods` except "none". You can request more than one method. FDR-corrected p-values ("fdr") are calculated by default. Turn it off by setting to "none". Please notice that different from `ModelArray.lm`, there is no p.value for the GAM model, so no "correct.p.value.model" for GAM model.
Arguments num.subj.lthr.abs and num.subj.lthr.rel are mainly for input data with subject-specific masks, i.e. currently only for volume data. For fixel data, you may ignore these arguments.