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Participants will be recruited using screening mechanisms provided by LiBI (CHOP IRB #16-013305), a research institute that spans both CHOP and Penn.

  • Target: 180 adolescents, including 65 with ADHD and 65 with PS, as well as 50 typically-developing comparators
  • Patients will be drawn from two clinical groups with well-documented executive deficits: ADHD and PS. Both patient groups and typically-developing comparators will be matched on age, sex, and race.

Key Inclusion Criteria:

  • Age: 8-15
  • Sex: Males and Females
  • Patients (n=130): Each participant will meet diagnostic criteria for either ADHD or PS (see Assessment, below). Given known and substantial co-morbidity between PS and ADHD (i.e., approx. 30% in the PNC), co-morbidity will be allowed and accounted for in specificity analyses. Youth meeting criteria for both PS and ADHD will be considered PS for enrollment purposes.
  • Typically developing (n=50): No current or lifetime history of any DSM-V diagnosis or substance use disorder.

Key Exclusion Criteria:

  • Metallic implants, claustrophobia, or other contraindications to MRI
  • Significant medical or neurological illness that impacts brain function or impedes participation
  • Acute intoxication with alcohol or other substances based on clinical assessment or subject report.
  • Pregnancy